Beta is a measure of systematic risk that shows how an individual security moves when the overall stock market increases or decreases. It can be calculated as the covariance between the stock and the market, divided by the variance of the market.
Some other related topics you might be interested to explore are the Capital Asset Pricing Model, Regression Analysis, and Security Market Line.
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Stock Beta is among the topics included in the Portfolio Management module of the CFA Level 1 Curriculum.